Who must report abuse?

Self-help books on healing from abuse

Hierarchy of Needs

Guidelines for helping a survivor
A general statement about abuse: Those who hold the least power and resources in
society are most often those who are abused (women, children, disabled, elderly). Bear in
mind that anyone can be abused, this includes men and women, rich or poor, educated or
illiterate, employed or unemployed - abuse is no respecter of persons or boundaries, and
can occur at any time during a person’s life.

Childhood Abuse - follow this link is for information on neglect, physical abuse, sexual
abuse, or emotional abuse of children.
Adult survivors of childhood physical, emotional, and
sexual abuse.

Abuses of Adults, Disabled or Elderly:
Emotional abuse (also referred to as psychological or verbal abuse). When an individual is
continually belittled, called names, threatened with abandonment, rejected, isolated, denied
emotional contact, intimidated, and exposed to violence in the home.
National Clearinghouse
on Abuse in Later Life.

Domestic Violence can involve hitting, pushing, whipping, biting, punching, slapping,
burning, etc., that may or may not cause visible injury. Visible injuries include scratches,
burns, bruising, welts, or cuts. Non-visible or internal injuries consist of broken bones,
fractures, internal bleeding, etc. Domestic violence can include sexual assault and emotional
abuse. Domestic violence is perpetrated by intimate partners upon their spouse, girl/boy
friend, domestic partner, or cohabitating partner. This does not include relationships
between other family members, friends, or acquaintances.
Domestic violence that occurs
when children are present (
whether they can see/hear it or not) is considered child
abuse in most states.

Stalking.  Awareness of the probability of stalking by a perpetrator of domestic violence is
important. Stalking can happen during a marriage, during separation, and after a divorce,
and can go on for years. Stalking can
range from nuisance activity to death threats and
death. Stalking can
escalate from nuisance activity to death threats and death. It is important
that stalking is not ignored. Keep a record of all activity of the stalker in relation to the victim.

Disabled or Elderly abuse. The perpetrator of the elderly or disabled is usually an adult in
a caregiver position whether it be care facility staff or a family member caregiver. Abuse of
this population can involve neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or
financial abuse.

Physical abuse can involve hitting, pushing, whipping, biting, punching, slapping, burning,
etc., that may or may not cause visible injury. Visible injuries include scratches, burns,
bruising, welts, or cuts. Non-visible or internal injuries consist of broken bones, fractures,
internal bleeding, etc. Physical abuse is part of the abuses perpetrated on Children and the
Elderly or Disabled, it is one of the attributes of Domestic Violence.

Sexual abuse. The sexual abuse perpetrator, whether male or female, an adult or child, is
usually but not always, older than the child victim by five or more years. The perpetrator can
force, trick, threaten, or coerce a child into having any sexual contact including showing or
producing pornographic material, telling sexually explicit stories, inappropriate touching,
sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal), fondling, masturbation, oral/genital contact, digital
penetration, exposure, and voyeurism. Sexual abuse of adults is considered rape, sexual
assault, and sexual harassment. Sexual abuse of the elderly is similar to that of children,
except that the perpetrator is usually an adult, and has some form of power over the elderly
or disabled victim.  For additional information see the links for Children, Domestic Violence,
or Disabled/Elderly abuse.

Neglect/medical neglect. Not having one’s basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, or
medical/dental attention met; leaving a child alone when too young; emotional needs of
touching and talking are unmet. This also applies to the elderly when they are feeble or
infirm. See links to Disabled or Elderly abuse and Childhood abuse. This is generally not
considered an abuse of adults who are between ages 18 and 65 years, however, it may be
considered a criminal offense within domestic violence if the perpetrator actively prevents
the victim from seeking medical treatment.
Please note that neither the webmaster, nor anyone affiliated with
this website, will bear any responsibility for anyone taking the
information contained herein and misusing it or attempting to
claim it is professional advice. It is simply information, how it is
used is the responsibility of the reader.
National Suicide Hotline: 1-800-784-2433

National Child Abuse Hotline: 1-800-422-4453

National Elder Abuse hotline: 1-800-922-1660

Domestic Violence Hotline: 1-800-799-7233
TTY: 1-800-787-3224

National Center for Victims of Crime:
1-800-394-2255
TTY: 1-800-211-7996
About Abuse